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UPSC exams are considered to be the prestigious exams in India. However, with the right strategy and deep understanding of the syllabus, anyone can crack it. UPSC Syllabus is important to know what topics to read and what topic to avoid while preparing for the UPSC exam. This is the key to know what needs to read and what not to read for UPSC preparation.UPSC (Union Public Service Commission) conducts the IAS exam every year to recruit for civil services. The IAS syllabus is provided by UPSC on the official website during the release of official notification for the civil services exam.

Syllabus of IAS 2020 IPS,IFS examination IPS syllabus 2020

The UPSC Exam has three stages:

1. Preliminary Exam (Prelims)
2. Main Exam (Mains)
3. Interview Round (Personality test)

There is a common UPSC syllabus for services (Group A and Group B) such as the Indian Administrative Service, Indian Foreign Service, Indian Police Service, Indian Revenue Service, etc. There is a different syllabus for each stage of the UPSC Exam.

UPSC Syllabus for Preliminary Exam

The preliminary exam is the first stage of the UPSC Civil services exams. The syllabus for this exam is designed to access the general awareness and aptitude of an IAS aspirant.

It is a compulsory and qualifying paper. The questions in this exam are objective in nature.
The preliminary examination is only meant for screening a candidate for the next stages of the exam.

The marks obtained in preliminary will not be counted in ranking since the paper is of qualifying nature.
The Preliminary Exam consists of 2 papers:

1. General Studies paper 1
2. General Studies paper 2
The structure of this exam is as follows:

General studies No. of Questions No. of Marks Duration
Paper-1 100 200 120 minutes(2 hours)
Paper -2 80 200 120 minutes(2 hours)
Total 180 400 250 minutes(4 hours)

UPSC Prelims Syllabus for General studies paper-1



Paper I - (200 marks) Duration: Two hours

• Current events of national and international importance.
• History of India and Indian National Movement.
• Indian and World Geography- Physical, Social, Economic Geography of India and the World.
• Indian Polity and Governance- Constitution, Political System. Panchyati Raj, Public Policy,Rights Issues, Etc.
• Economic and Social Development Sustainable Development, Poverty, Inclusion, Demographics,Social Sector initiatives, etc.
• General issues on Environmental Ecology, Bio-diversity and Climate change – that do not requiresubject specialization.
• General Science.

UPSC Prelims Syllabus for General studies paper-2 (CSAT)

This paper is also known as Civil Services Aptitude Test (CSAT). It tests the analytical, logical and reasonable ability of the candidate.
1. Comprehension Interpersonal skills including communication skills.
2. Logical reasoning and analytical ability.
3. Decision making and problem-solving.
4. General mental ability.
4. Basic numeracy (numbers and their relations, orders of magnitude, etc.) (Class X level), Data interpretation (charts, graphs, tables, data sufficiency, etc. — Class X level).
Both papers have negative marks for wrong answers which will be marked as 1/3rd of the total marks assigned to the question.
Questions that are not attempted will not get any negative marks. Candidates need to score at least 33% to appear in the Mains exam. The ‘Decision Making’ based questions are mostly exempted from negative marks in CSAT.

Note 1 : Questions relating to English language Comprehension skills of Class x level (last item inthe Syllabus of Paper II) will be tested through passages from English language only withoutproviding Hindi translation thereof in the question paper.

Note 2 : The questions will be of multiple choices, objective type. One - third marks will bededucted for every wrong answer.

Note 3 : The preliminary examination is meant to serve as a screening test only. The marks obtainedin the prelims exam will not be counted for determining their final order of merit. It iseligibility test for admission to the main examination.

Note 4 : Examination (Prelims) conducts in the month of May every year. But in 2014 the PrelimsExam will be held in the month of August.

Note 5 : Result comes in October first Week. The number of total candidates to be declare qualifiedin this (Pre) exam will be about ten to twelve (10-12) times the total approximate number ofvacancies to be filled in that particular year.

UPSC Syllabus for Main Exam

Mains exam is the second stage of the UPSC Exam. This exam is descriptive in nature. The main exam consists of 9 papers. It consists of 2 qualifying papers and 7 Merit papers.
The marks obtained in English and Hindi (Any Indian Language) (Paper A and B) are of qualifying nature and will not be counted for ranking. The question papers of these papers will be of Conventional (Essay type)
The Commission will release the list of candidates shortlisted for the Civil Services Main Exam based on merit and reservation.

The structure of Qualifying papers:

PaperSubjectMaximum MarksDurationNature
Paper AAny Indian language300 (25% For Qualifying)3 Hours Qualifying
Paper BEnglish paper300 (25% For Qualifying)3 Hours QualifyingQUALIFYING

Qualifying papers:
1. Paper-A: Indian Language
One of the Indian Languages has to be selected by the candidate from the Languages included in the Eighth Schedule to the Constitution.

(i)comprehension of given passages.
(ii)Précis Writing.
(iii)Usage and Vocabulary.
(iv)Short Essays.
(v)Translation from English to the Indian Language and vice-versa.

Note: This paper will not be compulsory for candidates coming from Arunachal Pradesh, Manipur, Meghalaya, Mizoram, Nagaland, and Sikkim.

2. Paper-B: English
The pattern of questions would be broadly as follows :
(i)Comprehension of given passages.
(ii)Précis Writing.
(iii)Usage and Vocabulary.
(iv)Short Essays.

Note: A Student must obtain 25% marks in Paper A and Paper B as minimum qualifying standards to appear in Paper I to VII. Aspirants should answer the English and Indian Languages papers in English and the respective Indian language (except where the translation is involved).

List of Indian Language:
1. Assamese
2. Bengali
3. Bodo
4. Dogri
5. Gujarati
6. Hindi
7. Kannada
8. Kashmiri
9. Konkani
10. Maithili
11. Malayalam
12. Manipuri
13. Marathi
14. Nepali
15. Oriya
16. Punjabi
17. Sanskrit
18. Santhali
19. Sindhi
20. Tamil
21. Telugu
22. Urdu
23. English

The structure of Merit papers:
PaperSubjectMaximum MarksDuration
Paper-IEssay2503 Hours
Paper-IIGeneral Studies-I2503 Hours
Paper-IIIGeneral Studies-II2503 Hours
Paper-IVGeneral Studies-III2503 Hours
Paper-VGeneral Studies-IV2503 Hours
Paper-VIOptional Subject - Paper 12503 Hours
Paper-VIIOptional Subject - Paper 22503 Hours

Merit Papers:
1. Paper-1 (Essay)
Aspirants should write essays on multiple topics. They will be expected to keep close to the subject of the essay to arrange their ideas in orderly fashion, and to write concisely. Credit will be given for effective and exact expression.

2. Paper-II (General Studies-I)
Subject: Indian Heritage and Culture, History, and Geography of the World and Society

Indian Heritage: Indian culture will cover the salient aspects of Art Forms, literature and Architecture from ancient to modern times.

Modern Indian History: Modern Indian history from about the middle of the eighteenth century until the present significant events, personalities, issues. The Freedom Struggle its various stages and important contributors/contributions from different parts of the country. Post-independence consolidation and reorganization within the country.

World History: History of the world will include events from the 18th century such as industrial revolution, world wars, redraw of national boundaries, colonization, decolonization, political philosophies like communism, capitalism, socialism etc.— their forms and effect on society.

Indian Society: Salient features of Indian Society, Diversity of India. Role of women and women’s organization, population and associated issues, poverty and developmental issues, urbanization, their problems, and their remedies. Effects of globalization on Indian society. Social empowerment, communalism, regionalism & secularism.

Geography: Salient features of the world's physical geography. Distribution of key natural resources across the world (including South Asia and the Indian sub-continent);

Factors responsible for the location of primary, secondary, and tertiary sector industries in various parts of the world (including India). Important Geophysical phenomena such as earthquakes, Tsunami, Volcanic activity, cyclone, etc.

3. Paper-III(General Studies-II)
Subject: Governance, Constitution, Polity, Social Justice and International relations

Indian Constitution: Historical underpinnings, evolution, features, amendments, significant provisions and basic structure. Functions and responsibilities of the Union and the States, issues and challenges pertaining to the federal structure, devolution of powers and finances up to local levels and challenges therein.

Indian Polity: Separation of powers between various organs dispute redressal mechanisms and institutions. Comparison of the Indian constitutional scheme with that of other countries.

Parliament and State legislatures Structure, organization and functioning of the Executive and the Judiciary Salient features of the Representation of People’s Act. Statutory, regulatory and various quasi-judicial bodies.

Social Justice: Government policies and interventions for development in various sectors and issues arising out of their design and implementation. Development processes and the development industry

The role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups and associations, donors, charities, institutional and other stakeholders. Welfare schemes for vulnerable sections of the population by the Centre and States and the performance of these schemes. Issues relating to poverty and hunger.

Indian Governance: Important aspects of governance, transparency, and accountability, e-governance applications, models, successes, limitations, and potential; citizens charters, transparency & accountability and institutional and other measures. Role of civil services in a democracy.

International Relations: India and its neighborhood- relations. Bilateral, regional and global groupings and agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.

Effect of policies and politics of developed and developing countries on India’s interests, Indian diaspora. Important International institutions, agencies, and fora- their structure, mandate.

4. Paper IV(General Studies-III)
Subject: Technology, Economic Development, Biodiversity, Environment, Security and Disaster Management

Indian Economy: Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development and employment. Inclusive growth and issues arising from it. Government Budgeting. Major crops-cropping patterns in various parts of the country; e-technology in the aid of farmers.

Issues related to direct and indirect farm subsidies and minimum support prices; Public Distribution System. Food processing and related industries in India. Land reforms in India. Effects of liberalization on the economy, changes in industrial policy and their effects on industrial growth.

Infrastructure: Energy, Ports, Roads, Airports, Railways, etc. Investment models.

Science and Technology: Science and Technology- developments and their applications and effects in everyday life. Achievements of Indians in science & technology; indigenization of technology and developing new technology.

Awareness in the fields of IT, Space, Computers, robotics, nano-technology, bio-technology and issues relating to intellectual property rights.

Environment & Biodiversity: Conservation, environmental pollution, and degradation, environmental impact assessment.

Disaster Management: Disaster and disaster management.

Security: Linkages between development and spread of extremism. Role of external state and non-state actors in creating challenges to internal security. Challenges to internal security through communication networks, the role of media and social networking sites in internal security challenges, basics of cybersecurity; money. Various Security forces and agencies and their mandate.

5. Paper V (General Studies-IV)
Subject: Ethics, Integrity, and Aptitude

Ethics and Human Interface: Essence, determinants, and consequences of Ethics in-human actions; dimensions of ethics; ethics - in private and public relationships. Human Values. lessons from the lives and teachings of great leaders, reformers, and administrators; the role of family society and educational institutions in inculcating values.

Attitude: content, structure, function; its influence and relation with thought and behavior; moral and political attitudes; social influence and persuasion.

Aptitude: Aptitude and foundational values for Civil Service, integrity, impartiality and non- partisanship, objectivity, dedication to public service, empathy, tolerance and compassion towards the weaker sections.

Emotional Intelligence: Emotional intelligence-concepts, and their utilities and application in administration and governance. Contributions of moral thinkers and philosophers from India and the world. Public/Civil service values and Ethics in

Public administration: Status and problems; ethical concerns and dilemmas in government and private institutions; laws, rules, regulations and conscience as sources of ethical guidance; accountability and ethical governance; strengthening of ethical and moral values in governance; ethical issues in international relations and funding; corporate governance.

Probity in Governance: Concept of public service; Philosophical basis of governance and probity; Information sharing and transparency in government, Right to Information, Codes of Ethics, Codes of Conduct, Citizen’s Charters, Work culture, Quality of service delivery, Utilization of public funds, challenges of corruption. Case Studies on the above issues.

6 & 7. Optional Subject - Paper 1 and 2
Candidates may choose any optional subject from amongst the list of optional subjects. Aspirants can also choose one Indian language as an optional subject amongst the list.

1. Agriculture
2. Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Science
3. Anthropology
4. Botany
5. Chemistry
6. Civil Engineering
7. Commerce and Accountancy
8. Economics
9. Electrical Engineering
10. Geography
11. Geology
12. History
13. Law
14. Management
15. Mathematics
16. Mechanical Engineering
17. Medical Science
18. Philosophy
19. Physics
20. Political Science and International Relations
21. Psychology
22. Public Administration
23. Sociology
24. Statistics
25. Zoology
26. Indian Language

Public Administration

Administrative Theory

1. Introduction : Meaning, scope and significance of Public Administration; Wilson’s vision of PublicAdministration, Evolution of the discipline and its present status, New Public Administration; PublicChoice approach; Challenges of liberalization Privatisation, Globalisation, Good Governance, conceptand application; New Public Management.

2. Administrative Thought : Scientific Management and Scientific Management movement. ClassicalTheory; Webers’ bureaucratic model-its critique and past-Weberian developments; DynamicAdministration (Mary Parker Follett): Human Relation Theory (Elton Mayo and others}; Functions ofthe Executive (C.I. Barnard); simon’s decisions making theory; Participative Management (R. Likert. C.Argyris, D. McGregor).

3. Administrative Behaviour : Process and techniques of decision-making; Communication; Morale,Motivation Theories Content, process and contemporary,’ Theories of Leadership: Traditional andModern.

4. Organizations : Theories-systems, contingency; Structure and farms: Ministries and Departments,Corporations, Companies, Board and Commissions; Ad hoc and advisory bodies; Headquarters andField relationship; Regulatory Authorities; Public -Private Partnerships.

5. Accountability And Control: Concepts of accountability and control; Legislative, Executive andJudicial control over administration, Citizen and Administration’ Role of media, interest groups,voluntary, organizations, Civil society; Citizen’s, Characters; Right to information; Social audit.

6. Administrative Law: Meaning, Scope and significance, Dicey an Administrative Law; Delegatedlegislation; Administrative Tribunals.

7. Comparative Public Administration: Historical and Sociological factors affecting administrativesystems; Administration and politics in different countries, Current status of Comparative PublicAdministration; Ecology and administration, Riggsian models and their critique.

8. Development Dynamics: Concepts of development; Changing profile of development administration;Anti-development thesis’Bureaucracy and development; Strong state versus ‘the market debate; Impactof liberalisation an administration-in developing countries; Women-and development -the self-helpgroup movement.

9. Personnel Administration: Importance of human resource development-Recruitment training; careeradvancement, position classification discipline, performance appraisal, promotion;’ pay· and serviceconditions; employer- employee relations, grievance redressal mechanism; Code of conduct;Administration ethics,

10. Public Policy: Models of policy-making and their critique; Processes of conceptualization, planning,implementation, monitoring, evaluation and review and their limitations; State theories and public policyformulation.

11. Techniques Of Administrative Improvement: Organization and methods, Work study, and workmanagement; e-governance and”: ‘information technology; Management aid tools like networkanalysis, MIS, PERTCPM.

12. Financial Administration: Monetary” and. fiscal policies; Public borrowings ‘and’ public- debtBudgets types and farms; Budgetary process: Financial accountability: Accounts -and audit.


1. Evolution Of Indian Administration : Kautilya’s Arthashastra; Mughal administration;Legacy of British rule in politics and administration Indianization of public: services,revenue administration, district administration, local self-government.

2. Philosophical And Constitutional Framework of Government : Main feature,constitualism, political culture, Bureaucracy and Democracy, Bureaucracy andDevelopment.

3. Public Sector Undertakings: Public sectors in modern India; Forms of Public Sectorundertakings; Problems of autonomy, accountability and control Impact of liberalizationand privatization.

4. Union Government And Administration: Executive, Parliament, Judiciary-Structure,functions, work processes, Recent trends; Intergovernmental relations; CabinetSecretariat; Prime Minister’s Offices; Central Secretariat; Ministries and Department;Boards, Commissions; Attached offices; Field organizations.

5. Plans And Priorities: Machinery of planning; Role, composition and function of thePlanning Commission and the National Development Council; ‘Indicative’ planning;Process of plan formulation at Union and. Stat levels; Constitutional Amendments (1992)and decentralized planning for economic development and social justice.

6. State Government And Administration: Union - state administrative; administrative,legislative and financial relations; Role of the Finance Commission; Governor; ChiefMinister; Council of Ministers; Chief Secretary; State Secretariat; Directorates.

7. District Administration Since Independence: Changing role of the Collector; Unionstate -local relations; Imperatives of development management and law and orderadministration; District administration and democratic decentralization.

8. Civil Services: Constitutional position; Structure’, recruitment training and capacitybuilding; Good governance initiatives; Code of conduct and discipline: Staffassociations; Political rights; Grievance redressal mechanism; Civil service neutrality;Civil Service activism.

9. Financial Management: Budge as a political instrument; Parliamentary control ofpublic expenditure; Role of finance ministry in monetary and fiscal area; Accountingtechniques; Audit; Role of Controller General of Accounts and Comptroller and AuditorGeneral of India.

10. Administrative Reforms Since Independence: Major concerns; Important Committeesand Commissions, Reforms in financial management and human-resource development:Problems of implementation.

11. Rural Development: Institutions and agencies since independence; Rural developmentprogrammes: local strategies; Decentralisation and Panchayati Raj: 73 Constitutionalamendment.

12. Urban -Local Government: Municipal governance: main features, structures, financeth and problem areas; 74 Constitutional Amendment; Global - local debate; New’localism;’ Development dynamics, politics and administration with special reference tocity management.

13. Law And Order Administration: British legacy; National Police Commission;Investigative agencies; Role of central and state agencies including paramilitary forces -in maintenance of law and .order. and countering insurgency ‘and terrorism;’Criminalisation of Politics and administration; Police, public relations; Reforms inPolice.

14. Significant Issues In Indian Administration: Values in Public service: RegulatoryCommission; National Human Rights Commission; Problems of administration’ incoalition regimes; .Citizen- administration interface; Corruption and administrationDisaster management.


Paper 1

1.1Meaning, Scope and development of Anthropology.

1.2Relationships with other disciplines : Social Sciences, behavioural Sciences, Life Sciences,

MedicalSciences, Earth Sciences and Humanities.
1.3Main branches of Anthropology, their scope and relevance :
(a)Social-cultural Anthropology.
(b)Biological Anthropology.
(c)Archaeological Anthropology.
(d)Linguistic Anthropology.

1.4Human Evolution and emergence of Man :
(a)Biological and Cultural factors in human evolution.

(b)Theories of Organic Evolution (Pre-Darwinian, Darwinian and Post-Darwinian).

(c)Synthetic theory of evolution; Brief outline of terms and concepts of evolutionary biology (Doll’s rule, Cope’s rule, Gause’s rule, parallelism, convergence, adaptive radiation, and mosaic evolution).

1.5Characteristics of Primates; Evolutionary Trend and Primate Taxonomy; Primate Adaptations; (Arboreal and Terrestrial) Primate Taxonomy; Primate Behaviour; Tertiary and Quaternary fossil primates; Living Major Primates; Comparative Anatomy of Man and Apes; Skeletal changes due to erect posture and its implications.

1.6Phylogenetic status, characteristics and geographical distribution of the following :

(a)Plio-preleistocene hominids inSouth and East Africa—Australopithecines.

(b)Homo erectus : Africa (Paranthropus), Europe (Homo erectus (heidelbergensis), Asia

(Homo erectus javanicus, Homo erectus pekinensis.

(c)Neanderthal man—La-chapelle-aux-saints (Classical type), Mt. Carmel (Progressive type).

(d)Rhodesian man.

(e)Homo saoiens—Cromagnon, Grimaldi and Chancelede.

1.7The biological basis of Life : The Cell, DNA structure and replication, Protein Synthesis, Gene, Mutation, Chromosomes, and Cell Division.

1.8(a)Principles of Prehistoric Archaeology. Chronology : Relative and Absolute Dating methods.

(b)Cultural Evolution—Broad Outlines ofPrehistoric cultures :





(v)Copper-Bronze Age

(vi)Iron Age

2.1The Nature of Culture : The concept and Characteristics of culture and civilization; Ethnocentrism vis-a-vis cultural Relativism.

2.2The Nature of Society : Concept of Society; Society and Culture; Social Institution; Social groups; and Social stratification.

2.3Marriage : Definition and universality; Laws of marriage (endogamy, exogamy, hypergamy, hypogamy, incest taboo); Type of marriage (monogamy, polygamy, polyandry, group marriage). Functions of marriage; Marriage regulations (preferential, prescriptive and proscriptive); Marriage payments (bride wealth and dowry).

2.4Family : Definition and universality; Family, household and domestic groups; functions of family; Types of family (from the perspectives of structure, blood relation, marriage, residence and succession); Impact of urbanization, industrialization and feminist movements on family.

2.5Kinship : Consanguinity and Affinity; Principles and types of descent (Unilineal, Double, Bilateral Ambilineal); Forms of descent groups (lineage, clan, phratry, moiety and kindred); Kinship terminology (descriptive and classificatory); Descent, Filiation and Complimentary Filiation;Decent and Alliance.

3.Economic Organization : Meaning, scope and relevance of economic anthropology; Formalist and Substantivist debate; Principles governing production, distribution and exchange (reciprocity, redistribution and market), in communities, subsisting on hunting and gathering, fishing, swiddening, pastoralism, horticulture, and agriculture; globalization and indigenous economic systems.

4.Political Organization and Social Control : Band, tribe, chiefdom, kingdom and state; concepts of power, authority and legitimacy; social control, law and justice in simple Societies.

5.Religion : Anthropological approaches to the study of religion (evolutionary, psychological and functional); monotheism and polytheism; sacred and profane; myths and rituals; forms of religion in tribal and peasant Societies (animism, animatism, fetishism, naturism and totemism); religion, magic and science distinguished; magico-religious functionaries (priest, shaman, medicine man, sorcerer and witch).

6.Anthropological theories :

(a)Classical evolutionism (Tylor, Morgan and Frazer)

(b)Historical particularism (Boas) Diffusionism (British, German and American)

(c)Functionalism (Malinowski); Structural—Functionlism (Radcliffe-Brown)

(d)Structuralism (L’evi-Strauss and E. Leach)

(e)Culture and personality (Benedict, Mead, Linton, Kardiner and Cora-du Bois)

(f)Neo—evolutionism (Childe, White, Steward, Sahlins and Service)

(g)Cultural materialism (Harris)

(h)Symbolic and interpretive theories (Turner, Schneider and Geertz)

(i)Cognitive theories (Tyler, Conklin)

(j)Post-modernism in anthropology.

7.Culture, Language and Communication :

Nature, origin and characteristics of language; verbal and non-verbal communication; social contex of language use.

8.Research methods in Anthropology :

(a)Fieldwork tradition in anthropology

(b)Distinction between technique, method and methodology

(c)Tools of data collection : observation, interview, schedules, questionnaire, case study, genealogy, life-history, oral history, secondary sources of information, participatory methods.

(d)Analysis, interpretation and presentation of data.

9.1Human Genetics : Methods and Application : Methods for study of genetic principles in man-family study (pedigree analysis, twin study, foster child, co-twin method, cytogenetic method, chromosomal and karyo-type analysis), biochemical methods, immunological methods, D.N.A. technology and recombinant technologies.

9.2Mendelian genetics in man-family study, single factor, multifactor, lethal, sub-lethal and polygenic inheritance in man.

9.3Concept of genetic polymorphism and selection, Mendelian population, Hardy-Weinberg law; causes and changes which bring down frequency-mutation, isolation, migration, selection, inbreeding and genetic drift. Consanguineous and non-consanguineous mating, genetic load, genetic effect of consanguineous and cousin marriages.

9.4Chromosomes and chromosomal aberrations in man, methodology.

(a)Numerical and structural aberrations (disorders).

(b)Sex chromosomal aberration- Klinefelter (XXY), Turner (XO), Super female (XXX), intersex and other syndromic disorders.

(c)Autosomal aberrations- Down syndrome, Patau, Edward and Cri-du-chat syndromes.

(d)Genetic imprints in human disease, genetic screening, genetic counseling, human DNA profiling, gene mapping and genome study.

9.5Race and racism, biological basis of morphological variation of non-metric and characters. Racial criteria, racial traits in relation to heredity and environment; biological basis of racial classification, racial differentiation and race crossing in man.

9.6Age, sex and population variation as genetic marker :ABO, Rh blood groups, HLA Hp, transferring, Gm, blood enzymes. Physiological characteristics-Hb level, body fat, pulse rate, respiratory functions and sensory perceptions in different cultural and socio-ecomomic groups.

9.7Concepts and methods of Ecological Anthropology : Bio-cultural Adaptations—Genetic and Non-genetic factors. Man’s physiological responses to environmental stresses: hot desert, cold, high altitude climate.

9.8Epidemiological Anthropology : Health and disease. Infectious and non-infectious diseases, Nutritional deficiency related diseases.

10. Concept of human growth and Development : Stages of growth—pre-natal, natal, infant, childhood, adolescence, maturity, senescence.

—Factors affecting growth and development genetic, environmental,biochemical, nutritional, cultural and socio-economic.

—Ageing and senescence. Theories and observations

—Biological and chronological longevity. Human physique and somatotypes. Methodologies for growth studies.

11.1Relevance of menarche, menopause and other bioevents to fertility. Fertility patterns and differentials.

11.2Demographic theories-biological, social and cultural.

11.3Biological and socio-ecological factors influencing fecundity, fertility, natality and mortality.

12. Applications of Anthropology : Anthropology of sports, Nutritional anthropology, Anthroplogy in designing of defence and other equipments, Forensic Anthroplogy, Methods and principles of personal identification and reconstruction, Applied human genetics—Paternity diagnosis, genetic counselling and eugenics, DNA technology in diseases and medicine, serogenetics and cytogenetics in reproductive biology.


1.1Evolution of the Indian Culture and Civilization—Prehistoric (Palaeolithic, Mesolithic, Neolithic and Neolithic-Chalcolithic), Protohistoric (Indus Civilization). Pre-Harappan, Harappan and post-Harappan cultures. Contributions of the tribal cultures to Indian civilization.

1.2Palaeo—Anthropological evidences from India with special reference to Siwaliks and Narmada basin (Ramapithecus, Sivapithecus and Narmada Man).

1.3. Ethno-archaeology in India: The concept of ethno-archaeology; Survivals and Parallels among the hunting, foraging, fishing, pastoral and peasant communities including arts and crafts producing communities.

2. Demographic profile of India—Ethnic and linguistic elements in the Indian population and their distribution. Indian population—factors influencing its structure and growth.

3.1The structure and nature of traditional Indian social system—Varnashram, Purushartha, Karma, Rina and Rebirth.

3.2Caste system in India— Structure and characteristics Varna and caste, Theories of origin of caste system, Dominant caste, Caste mobility, Future of caste system, Jajmani system. Tribe-case continuum.

3.3Sacred Complex and Nature-Man-Spirit Complex.

3.4. Impact of Buddhism, Jainism, Islam and Christianity of Indian society.

4. Emergence, growth and development in India—Contributions of the 18th, 19th and early 20th Century scholar-administrators. Contributions of Indian anthropologists to tribal and caste studies.

5.1Indian Village—Significane of village study in India; Indian village as a social system; Traditional and changing patterns of settlement and inter-caste relations; Agrarian relations in Indian villages; Impact of globalization on Indian villages.

5.2Linguistic and religious minorities and their social, political and economic status.

5.3Indigenous and exogenous processes of socio-cultural change in Indian society: Sanskritization, Westernization, Modernization; Inter-play of little and great traditions; Panchayati Raj and social change; Media and Social change.

6.1Tribal situation in India—Bio-genetic variability, linguistic and socio-economic characteristics of the tribal populations and their distribution.

6.2Problems of the tribal Communities—Land alienation, poverty, indebtedness, low literacy, poor educational facilities, unemployment, under- employment, health and nutrition.

6.3Developmental projects and their impact on tribal displacement and problems of rehabilitation. Development of forest policy and tribals. Impact of urbanisation and industrialization on tribal populations.

7.1Problems of exploitation and deprivation of Scheduled Castes, Scheduled Tribes and Other Backward Classes. Constitutional safeguards for Scheduled Tribes and Scheduled Castes.

7.2Social change and contemporary tribal societies : Impact of modern democratic institutions, development programmes and welfare measures on tribals and weaker sections.

7.3The concept of ethnicity; Ethnic conflicts and political developments; Unrest among tribal communities; Regionalism and demand for autonomy; Pseudo-tribalism. Social change among the tribes during colonial and post-Independent India.

8.1Impact of Hinduism, Buddhism, Christianity, Islam and other religions on tribal societies.

8.2Tribe and nation state—a comparative study of tribal communities in India and other countries.

9.1History of administration of tribal areas, tribal policies, plans, programmes of tribal development and their implementation. The concept of PTGs (Primitive Tribal Groups), their distribution, special programmes for their development. Role of N.G.O.s in tribal development.

9.2Role of anthropology in tribal and rural development.

9.3Contributions of anthropology to the understanding of regionalism, communalism and ethnic and political movements.


Paper 1

1.Microbiology and Plant Pathology :

Structure and reproduction/multiplication of viruses,viroids, bacteria, fungi and mycoplasma; Applications of microbiology in agriculture, industry, medicine and in control of soil and water pollution; Prion and Prion hypothesis.

Important crop diseases caused by viruses, bacteria, mycoplasma, fungi and nematodes; Modes of infection and dissemination; Molecular basis of infection and disease resistance/defence; Physiology of parasitism and control measures. Fungal toxins. Modelling and disease forecasting; Plant quarantine.

2.Cryptogams :

Algae, fungi, lichens, bryophytes, pteridophytes-structure and reproduction from evolutionary viewpoint; Distribution of Cryptogams in India and their ecological and economic importance.

3.Phanerogams :

Gymnosperms : Concept of Progymnosperms. Classification and distribution of gymnosperms. Salient features of Cycadales, Ginkgoales, Coniferales and Gnetales, their structure and reproduction. General account of Cycadofilicales, Bennettitales and Cordiaitailes; Geological time scale; Type of fossils and their study techniques.

Angiosperms : Systematics, anatomy, embryology, palynology and phylogency.

Taxonomic hierarchy; International Code of Botanical Nomenclature; Numerical taxomomy and chemotaxomomy; Evidence from anatomy, embryology and palynology.

Origin and evolution of angiosperms; Comparative account of various systems of classification of angiosperms; Study of angiospermic families— Mangnoliaceae, Ranunculaceae, Brassicaceae, Rosaceae, Fabaceae, Euphorbiaceae, Malvaceae, Dipterocarpaceae, Apiaceae, Asclepiadaceae, Verbenaceae, Solanaceae, Rubiaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Asteraceae, Poaceae, Arecaceae, Liliaceae, Musaceae and Orchidaceae.

Stomata and their types; Glandular and non-glandular trichomes; Unusual secondary growth; Anatomy of C3 and C4 plants; Xylem and phloem differentiation; Wood anatomy.

Development of male and female gametophytes, pollination, fertilization; Endosperm—its development and function. Patterns of embryo development; Polyembroyony, apomixes; Applications of palynology; Experimental embryology including pollen storage and test-tube fertilization.

4.Plant Resource Development :

Domestication and introduction of plants; Origin of cultivated plants, Vavilov’s centres of origin. Plants as sources for food, fodder, fibres, spices, beverages, edible oils, drugs, narcotics, insecticides, timber, gums, resins and dyes; latex, cellulose, starch and its products; Perfumery; Importance of Ethnobotany in Indian context; Energy plantations; Botanical Gardens and Herbaria.

5.Morphogenesis :

Totipotency, polarity, symmetry and differentiation; Cell, tissue, organ and protoplast culture. Somatic hybrids and Cybrids; Micropropagation; Somaclonal variation and its applications; Pollen haploids, embryo rescue methods and their applications.


1.Cell Biology :

Techniques of cell biology. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells—structural and ultrastructural details; Structure and function of extracellular matrix (cell wall) and membranes-cell adhesion, membrane transport and vesicular transport; Structure and function of cell organelles (chloroplasts, mitochondria, ER, dictyosomes ribosomes, endosomes,lysosomes,

peroxisomes; Cytoskelaton and microtubules; Nucleus, nucleolus, nuclear pore complex; Chromatin and nucleosome; Cell signalling and cell receptors; Signal transduction Mitosis and meiosis; molecular basis of cell cycle. Numerical and structural variations in chromosomes and their significance; Chromatin organization and packaging of genome; Polytene chromosomes; B-chromosomes—structure, behaviour and significance.

2.Genetics, Molecular Biology and Evolution :

Development of genetics, and gene versus allele concepts (Pseudoalleles); Quantitative genetics and multiple factors; Incomplete dominance, polygenic inheritance, multiple alleles; Linkage and crossing over of gene mapping including molecular maps (idea of mapping, function); Sex chromosomes and sex-linked inheritance; sex determination and molecular basis of sex differentiation; Mutations (biochemical and molecular basis); Cytoplasmic inheritance and cytoplasmic genes (including genetics of male sterility).

Structure and synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins; Genetic code and regulation of gene expression; Gene silencing; Multigene families; Organic evolution-evidences, mechanism and theories.

Role of RNA in origin and evolution.

3.Plant Breeding, Biotechnology and Biostatistics :

Methods of plant breeding—introduction, selection and hybridization (pedigree, backcross, mass selection, bulk method); Mutation, polyploidy, male sterility and heterosis breeding. Use of apomixes in plant breeding; DNA sequencing; Genetic engineering—methods of transfer of genes; Transgenic crops and biosafety aspects; Development and use of molecular markers in plant breeding; Tools and techniques—probe, southern blotting, DNA fingerprinting, PCR and FISH. Standard deviation and coefficient of variation (CV). Tests of significance (Z-test, t-test and chi-square tests). Probability and distributions (normal, binomial and Poisson). Correlation and regression.

4.Physiology and Biochemistry :

Water relations, mineral nutrition and ion transport, mineral deficiencies. Photosynthesis—photochemical reactions, photophosphorylation and carbon fixation

pathways; C3, C4 and CAM pathways; Mechanism of pholem transport, Respiration

(anerobic and aerobic, including fermentation)—electron transport chain and oxidative phosphorylation; Photorespiration; Chemiosmotic theory and ATP synthesis; Lipid metabolism; Nitrogen fixation and nitrogen metabolism. Enzymes, coenzymes; Energy transfer and energy conservation. Importance of secondary metabolites. Pigments as photoreceptors (plastidial pigments and phytochrome). Plant movements; Photoperiodism and flowering, vernalization, senescence; Growth substances—their chemical nature, role and applications in agri-horticulture; growth indices, growth movements. Stress physiology (heat, water, salinity, metal); Fruit and seed physiology. Dormancy, storage and germination of seed. Fruit ripening—its molecular basis and manipulation.

5.Ecology and Plant Geography :

Concept of ecosystem; Ecological factors. Concepts and dynamics of community; Plant succession. Concepts of biosphere; Ecosystems; Conservation; Pollution and its control (including phytoreme-diation); Plant indicators; Environment (Protection) Act.

Forest types of India—‘Ecological and ecomomic importance of forests, afforestation, deforestation and social forestry; Endangered plants, endemism IUCN categories, Red Data Books; Biodiversity and its conservation; Protected Area Network; Convention of Biological Diversity, Farmers’ Rights; and Intellectual Property Rights; Concept of Sustainable Development; Biogeochemical cycles. Global warming and climatic change; Invasive species; Environmetal Impact Assessment; Phytogeographical regions of India.

Civil Engineering


1.Engineering Mechanics, Strength of Materials and Structural Analysis.

1.1Engineering Mechanics :

Units and Dimensions, SI Units, Vectors, Concept of Force, Concept of particle and rigid body. Concurrent, Non- Concurrent and parallel forces in a plane, moment of force free body diagram, conditions of equilibrium, Principle of virtual work, equivalent force system.

First and Second Moment of area, Mass moment of Inertia. Static Friction.

Kinematics andKinetics:

Kinematics in cartesian Co-ordinates,motion under uniformand non-uniform acceleration, motion under gravity. Kinetics of particle : Momentum and Energy

principles, collision of elastic bodies, rotation of rigid bodies.

1.2Strength of Materials :

Simple Stress and Strain, Elastic constants, axially loaded compression members, Shear force and bending moment, theory of simple bending, Shear Stress distribution across cross sections, Beams of uniform strength.

Deflection of beams: Mecaulay’s method, Mohr’s Moment area method, Conjugate beam method, unit load method. Torsion of Shafts, Elastic stability of columns, Euler’s, Rankine’s and Secant formulae.

1.3Structural Analysis :

Castiglianio’s theorems I and II, unit load method, of consistent deformation applied to beams and pin jointed trusses. Slope-deflection, moment distribution.

Rolling loads and Influences lines : Influences lines for Shear Force and Bending moment at a section of a beam. Criteria for maximum shear force and bending Moment in beams traversed by a system of moving loads. Influences lines for simply supported plane pin jointed trusses.

Arches : Three hinged, two hinged and fixed arches, rib shortening and temperature effects.

Matrix mehods of analysis : Force method and displacement method of analysis of indeterminate beams and rigid frames.

Plastic Analysis of beams and frames : Theory of plastic bending, plastic analysis, statical method, Mechanism method.

Unsymmetrical bending : Moment of inertia, product of inertia, position of Neutral Axis and Principal axes, calculation of bending stresses.

2.Design of Structures : Steel, Concrete and Masonry Structures.

2.1Structural Steel Design :

Structural steel : Factors of safety and load factors. Riveted, bolted and welded joints and connections. Design of tension and compression members, beams of built up section, riveted and welded plate girders, gantry girders, stancheons with battens and lacings.

2.2Design of Concrete and Masonry Structures :

Concept of mix design. Reinforced Concrete : Working Stress and Limit State method of design— Recommendations of I. S. codes. Design of one way and two way slabs, stair-case slabs, simple and continuous beams of rectangular, T and L sections. Compression members under direct load with or without eccentricity.

Cantilever and Counter fort type retaining walls.

Water tanks : Design requirements for Rectangular and circular tanks resting on ground.

Prestressed Concrete : Methods and systems of prestressing, anchorages, Analysis and design of sections for flexure based on working stress, loss of prestress.

Design of brick masonry as per I. S. Codes

3.Fluid Mechanics, Open Channel Flow and Hydraulic Machines :

3.1Fluid Mechanics :

Fluid properties and their role in fluid motion, fluid statics including forces acting on plane and curve surfaces.

Kinematics and Dynamics of Fluid flow : Velocity and accelerations, stream lines, equation of continuity, irrotational and rotational flow, velocity potential and stream functions.

Continuity, momentum, energy equation, Navier Stokes equation, Euler’s equation of motion, application to fluid flow problems, pipe flow, sluice gates, weirs.

3.2Dimensional Analysis and Similitude: Buckingham’s Pi-theorem, dimensionless parameters.

3.3Laminar Flow :

Laminar flow between parallel, stationary and moving plates, flow through tube.

3.4Boundary layer :

Laminar and turbulent boundary layer on a flat plate, laminar sub-layer, smooth and rough boundaries, drag and lift.

Turbulent flow through pipes : Characteristics of turbulent flow, velocity distribution and variation of pipe friction factor, hydraulic grade line and total energy line.

3.5Open Channel Flow :

Uniform and non-uniform flows, momentum and energy correction factors, specific energy and specific force, critical depth, rapidly varied flow, hydraulic jump, gradually varied flow, classification of surface profiles, control section, step method of integration of varied flow equation.

3.6Hydraulic Machines and Hydropower :

Hydraulic turbines, types classification, Choice of turbines performance parameters, controls, characteristics, specific speed.

Principles of hydropower development.

4.Geotechnical Engineering :

Soil Type and Structure—gradation and particle size distribution—consistency limits.

Water in soil—capillary and structural—effective stress and pore water pressure—permeability concept—filed and laboratory determination of permeability—Seepage pressure—quick sand conditions—Shear strength determination—Mohr Coulomb concept.

Compaction of soil—Laboratory and filed test.

Compressibility and consolidation concept— consolidation theory—consolidation settlement analysis.

Earth pressure theory and analysis for retaining walls, Application for sheet piles and Braced excavation.

Bearingcapacityofsoil—approachesforanalysis-Filedtests—settlement analysis—stability of slope of earth walk.

Subsuface exploration of soils—methods

Foundation—Type and selection criteria for foundation of structures—Design criteria for foundation—Analysis of distribution of stress for footings and pile—pile group action—pile load test.

Ground improvement techniques.


1.Construction Technology, Equipment, Planning and Management

1.1Construction Technology

Engineering Materials :

Physical properties of construction materials with respect to their use in construction—Stones, Bricks and Tiles; Lime, Cement, different types of Mortars and Concrete.

Specific use of ferro cement, fibre reinforced C. C., High stength concrete. Timber; Properties defects—common preservation treatments.

Use and selection of materials for specific use like Low Cost Housing, Mass Housing, High Rise Buildings.

1.2Construction :

Masonry principles using Brick, stone, Blocks—construction detailing and strength characteristics.

Types of plastering, pointing, flooring, roofing and construction features. Common repairs in buildings.

Principle of functional planning of building for residents and specific use—Building code provisions.

Basic principles of detailed and approximate estimating—specification writing and rate analysis-principles of valuation of real property.

Machinery for earthwork, concreting and their specific uses—Factors affecting selection of equipments—operating cost of equipments.


Constructionactivity—schedules—organizationforconstructionindustry—Quality assurance principles.

Use Basic principle of network—analysis in form ofCPM and PERT—their use in construction monitoring, Cost optimization and resource allocation.

Basic principles of Economic analysis and methods.

Project profitability—Basic principles of Boot approach to financial planning-simple toll fixation criterions.

2.Surveying and Transportation Engineering

2.1Surveying : Common methods and instruments for distance and angle measurement for CE work—their use in plane table, traverse survey, levelling work, triangulation, contouring and topographical map.

Basic principles of photogrammetry and remote sensing.

2.2Railways Engineering : Permanent way—components, types and their function-Functions and Design constituents of turn and crossing— Necessity of geometric design of track—Design of station and yards.

2.3Highway Engineering :

Principles of Highway alignments—classification and geometrical design elements and standards for Roads.

Pavementstructureforflexibleandrigidpavements—Designprinciplesand methodology of pavements.

Typical construction methods and standards of materials for stabilized soil, WBM, Bituminous works and CC roads.

Surface and sub-surface drainge arrangements for roads—culvert structures. Pavement distresses and strengthening by overlays.

Traffic surveys and their application in traffic planning—Typical design features for channelized, intersection rotary etc.—signal designs—standard Traffic signs and markings.

3.Hydrology, Water Resources and Engineering :

3.1Hydrology :

Hydrological cycle, precipitation, evaporation, transpiration, infiltration, overland flow, hydrograph, flood frequency analyses, flood routing through a reservoir, channel flow routing—Muskingam method.

3.2Ground Water flow :

Specific yield, storage coefficient, coefficient of permeability, confined and unconfined aquifers, aquifers, aquitards, radial flow into a well under confined and unconfined conditions.

3.3Water Resources Engineering :

Ground and surface water resources, single and multipurpose projects, storage capacity of reservoirs, reservoir losses, reservoir sedimentation.

3.4Irrigation Engineering :

(i)Water requirements of crops : consumptive use, duty and delta, irrigation methods and their efficiencies.

(ii)Canals : Distribution systems for cannal irrigation, canal capacity, canal losses, alignment of main and distributory canals, most efficient section, lined canals, their design, regime theory, critical shear stress, bed load.

(iii)Water logging : causes and control, salinity.

(iv)Canal structures : Design of head regulators,canal falls, aqueducts, metering flumes and canal outlets.

(v)Diversion head work : Principles and design of weirs on permeable and impermeable foundation, Khosla’s theory, energy dissipation.

(vi)Storage works : Types of dams, design, principles of rigid gravity stability analysis.

(vii)Spillways : Spillway types, energy dissipation.

(viii)River training : Objectives of river training, methods of river training.

4.Environmental Engineering

4.1Water Supply :

Predicting demand for water, impurities of water and their significance, physical, chemical and bacteriological analysis, waterborne diseases, standards for potable water.

4.2Intake of Water :

Water treatment: principles of coagulation, flocculation and sedimentation; slow-, rapid-, pressure-, filters; chlorination, softening, removal of taste, odour and salinity.

4.3Sewerage Systems :

Domestic and industrial wastes, store sewage—separate and combined systems, flow through sewers, design of sewers.

4.4Sewage Characterisation :

BOD, COD,solids, dissolved oxygen, nitrogen and TOC. Standards of disposal in normal water course and on land.

4.5Sewage Treatment :

Working principles, units, chambers, sedimentation tank, trickling filters, oxidation ponds, activated sludge process, septic tank, disposal of sludge, recycling of waste water.

4.6Solid waste :

Collection and disposal in rural and urban contexts, management of long-term ill-effects.

5.Environmental pollution :

Sustainable development. Radioactive wastes and disposal. Environmental impact assessment for thermal power plants, mines, river valley projects. Air pollution. Pollution control acts.


Paper 1

1.Advanced Micro Economics :


(a)Marshallian and Varrasiam Approaches to Price determination.

(b)Alternative Distribution Theories; Ricardo, Kaldor, Kaleeki.

(c)Markets Structure : Monopolistic Competition, Duopoly, Oligopoly.

(d)Modern Welfare Criteria : Pareto Hicks and Scitovsky, Arrow’s Impossibility Theorem, A. K. Sen’s Social Welfare Function.

2.Advance Macro Economics :

Approaches to Employment Income and Interest Rate determination : Classical, Keynes (IS)-LM) curve, Neo-classical synthesis and New classical, Theories of Interest Rate determination and Interest Rate Structure.

3.Money-Banking and Finance :

(a)Demand for and Supply of Money : Money Multiplier Quantity Theory of Money (Fisher, Pique and Friedman) and Keyne’s Theory on Demand for Money, Goals and Instruments of

Monetary Management in Closed and Open Economies. Relation between the Central Bank and the Treasury. Proposal for ceiling on growth rate of money.

(b)Public Finance and its Role in market Economy : In stabilisation of supply, allocative, of resources and in distribution and development. Sources of Government revenue, forms of Taxes and Subsidies, their incidence and effects. Limits to taxation, loans, crowding-out effects and limits to borrowings. Public expenditure and its effects.

4.International Economics :

(a)Old and New theories of International Trade.

(i)Comparative advantage,

(ii)Terms of Trade and Offer Curve.

(iii)Product Cycleand Strategic Trade Theories.

(iv)Trade as an engine of growth and theories of underdevelopment in an open economy.

(b)Forms of Protection : Tariff and quota.

(c)Balance of Payments Adjustment : Alternative Approaches.

(i)Price versus income, income adjustments under fixed exchange rates.

(ii)Theories of Policy Mix.

(iii)Exchange rate adjustments under capital mobility.

(iv)Floating Rates and their Implications for Developing Countries : Currency Boards.

(v)Trade Policy and Developing Countries.

(vi)BOP, adjustments and Policy Coordination in open economy macromodel.

(vii)Speculative attacks.

(viii)Trade Blocks and Monetary Unions.

(ix)WTO : TRIMS, TRIPS, Domestic Measures, Different Rounds of WTO talks.

5.Growth and Development :

(a)(i) Theories of growth : Harrod’s model;

(ii)Lewis model of development with surplus labour.

(iii)Balanced Unbalanced Growth.

(iv)Human Capitals and EconomicGrowth.

(v)Research and Development and Economic Growth.

(b)Process of Economic Development of less developed courtries : Myrdal and Kuzments on economic development and structural change : Role of Agriculture in Economic Development of less developed countries.

(c)Economic Development and International Trade and Investment, Role of Multinationals.

(d)Planning and Economic Development : changing role of Markets and Planning, Private-Public Partnership.

(e)Welfare indicators and measures of growth—Human Development Indices. The basic needs approach.

(f)Development and Environmental Sustainability—Renewable and Non-renewable Resources, Environmental Degradation, Intergenerational equity development.


Indian Economics in Post-Independence Era :

Land System and its changes, Commercialization ofagriculture Drain theory, Laissez faire theory and critique. Manufacture and Transport : Jute, Cotton, Railways, Money and Credit.

Indian Economy after Independence :

A.The Pre-Liberalization Era :

(i)Contribution of Vakil, Gadgil and V.K.R.V. Rao.

(ii)Agricultrure : Land Reforms and land tenure system, Green Revolution and capital formation in agriculture.

(iii)Industry Trends in composition and growth, Role of public and private sector, small scale and cottage industries.

(iv)National and Per capita income : Patterns, trends, aggregate and sectoral composition and changes therein.

(v)Broad factors determining National Income and distribution, Measures of poverty, Trends in poverty and inequality.

B.The Post-Liberalization Era :

(i)New Economic Reform and Agriculture : Agriculture and WTO, Food processing, subsidies, Agricultural prices and public distribution system, Impact of public expenditure on agricultural growth.

(ii)New Economic Policy and Industry : Strategy of industrialization, Privatization, Disinvestments, Role of foreign direct investment and multinationals.

(iii)New Economic Policy and Trade : Intellectual property rights : Implications of TRIPS, TRIMS, GATS and new EXIM policy.

(iv)New Exchange Rate Regime : Partial and full convertibility, Capital account convertibility.

(v)New Economic Policy and Public Finance : Fiscal Responsibility Act, Twelfth Finance Commission and Fiscal Federalism and Fiscal Consolidation.

(vi)New Economic Policy and Monetary System. Role of RBI under the new regime.

(vii)Planning : From central Planning to indivative planning, Relation between planning and markets for growth and decentralized planning : 73rd and 74th Constitutional amendments.

(viii)New Economic Policy and Employment : Employment and poverty, Rural wages, Employment Generation, Poverty alleviation schemes, New Rural, Employment Guarantee Scheme.


Paper 1


Physical Geography :

1.Geomorphology : Factors controlling landform development; endogenetic and exogenetic forces; Origin and evolution of the earth’s crusts; Fundamentals of geomagnetism; Physical conditions of the earth’s interior; Geosynclines; Continental drift; Isostasy; Plate tectonics; Recent views on mountain building; Volcanicity; Earthquakes and Tsunamis; Concepts of geomorphic cycles and Land scape development; Denudation chronology; Channel morphology; Erosion surfaces; Slope development; Applied Geomorphology; Geomorphology, economic geology and environment.

2.Climatology : Temperature and pressure belts of the world; Heat budget of the earth; Atmospheric circulation; Atmospheric stability and instability. Planetary and local winds; Monsoons and jet streams; Air masses and fronto; Temperate and tropical cyclones; Types and distribution of precipitation; Weather and Climate; Koppen’s Thornthwaite’s and Trewar Tha’s classification of world climate; Hydrological cycle; Global climatic change, and role and response of man in climatic changes Applied climatology and Urban climate.

3.Oceanography : Bottom topography of the Atlantic, Indian and Pacific Oceans; Temperature and salinity of the oceans; Heat and salt budgets, Ocean deposits; Waves, currents and tides; Marine resources; biotic, mineral and energy resources; Coral reefs coral bleaching; Sea-level changes; Law of the sea and marine pollution.

4.Biogeography : Genesis of soils; Classification and distribution of soils; Soil profile; Soil erosion, Degrada-tion and conservation; Factors influencing world distribution of plants and animals; Problems of deforestation and conservation measures; Social forestry, agro-forestry; Wild life; Major gene pool centres.

5.Environmental Geography : Principle ecology; Human ecological adaptations; Influence of man on ecology and environment; Global and regional ecological changes and imbalances; Ecosystem their management and conservation; Environmental degradation, management and conservation; Biodiversity and sustainable development; Environmental policy; Environmental hazards and remedial measures; Environmental education and legislation.

Human Geography :

1.Perspectives in Human Geography : Areal differentiation; Regional synthesis; Dichotomy and dualism; Environmentalism; Quantitative revolution and locational analysis; Radical, behavioural, human and welfare approaches; Languages, religions and secularisation; Cultural regions of the world; Human development indix.

2.Economic Geography : World economic development: measurement and problems; World resources and their distribution; Energy crisis; the limits to growth; World agriculture: typology of agricultural regions; Agricultural inputs and productivity; Food and nutritions problems; Food security; famine: causes, effects and remedies; World industries: location patterns and problems; Patterns of world trade.

3.Population and Settlement Geography : Growth and distribution of world population; Demographic attributes; Causes and consequences of migration; Concepts of over-under-and optimum population; Population theories, world population problems and policies, Social well-being and quality of life; Population as social capital.

Types and patterns of rural settlements; Environmental issues in rural settlements; Hierarchy of urban settlements; Urban morphology; Concept of primate city and rank-size rule; Functional classification of towns; Sphere of urban influence; Rural-urban fringe; Satellite towns; Problems and remedies of urbanization; Sustainable development of cities.

4.Regional Planning : Concept of a region; Types of regions and methods of regionalisation; Growth centres and growth poles; Regional imbalances; Regional development strategies; Environmental issues in regional planning; Planning for sustainable development.

5.Models, Theories and Laws in Human Geography : System analysis in Human geography; Malthusian, Marxian and demographic transition models; Central Place theories of Christaller and Losch; Perroux and Boudeville; Von Thunen’s model of agricultural location; Weber’s model of industrial location; Ostov’s model of stages of growth. Heart-land and Rimland theories; Laws of international boundaries and frontiers.


1.Physical Setting : Space relationship of India with neighbouring countries; Structure and relief; Drainage system and watersheds; Physiographic regions; Mechanism of Indian monsoons and rainfall patterns; Tropical cyclones and western disturbances; Floods and droughts; Climatic regions; Natural vegetation, Soil types and their distributions.

2.Resources : Land, surface and ground water, energy, minerals, biotic and marine resources, Forest and wild life resources and their conservation; Energy crisis.

3.Agriculture : Infrastructure: irrigation, seeds, fertilizers, power; Institutional factors; land holdings, land tenure and land reforms; Cropping pattern, agricultural productivity, agricultural intensity, crop combination, land capability; Agro and social-forestry; Green revolution and its socio-economic and ecological implications; Significance of dry farming; Livestock resources and white revolution; Aqua-culture; Sericulture, Agriculture and poultry; Agricultural regionalisation; Agro-climatic zones; Agro-ecological regions.

4.Industry : Evolution of industries; Locational factors of cotton, jute, textile, iron and steel, aluminium, fertiliser, paper, chemical and pharmaceutical, automobile, cottage and ago-based industries; Industrial houses and complexes including public sector underkings; Industrial regionalisation; New industrial policy; Multinationals and liberalisation; Special Economic Zones; Tourism including ecotourism.

5.Transport, Communication and Trade : Road, railway, waterway, airway and pipeline net works and their complementary roles in regional development; Growing importance of ports on national and foreign trade; Trade balance; Trade Policy;Export processing zones; Developments in communication and information technology and their impacts on economy and society; Indian space programme.

6.Cultural Setting : Historical Perspective of Indian Society; Racial linguistic and ethnic diversities; religious minorities; Major tribes, tribal areas and their problems; Cultural regions; Growth, distribution and density of population; Demographic attributes: sex-ratio, age structure, literacy rate, work-force, dependency ratio, longevity; migration (inter-regional, interaregional and international) and associated problems; Population problems and policies; Health indicators.

7.Settlements : Types, patterns and morphology of rural settlements; Urban developments;

Morphology of Indian cities; Functional classification of Indian cities; Conurbations and metropolitan regions; Urban sprawl; Slums and asssociated problems; Town planning; Problems of urbanisation and remedies.

8.Regional Development and Planning: Experience of regional planning in India; Five Year Plans; Integrated rural development programmes; Panchayati Raj and decentralised planning; Command area development; Watershed management; Planning for backward area, desert, drought-prone, hill tribal area development; Multi-level planning; Regional planning and development of island territories.

9.Political Aspects : Geographical basis of Indian federalism; State reorganisation; Emergence of new states; Regional consciousness and inter-state issues; International boundary of India and related issues; Cross-border terrorism; India’s role in world affairs; Geopolitics of South Asia and Indian Ocean realm.

10.Contemporary Issues : Ecological issues: Environmental hazards: landslides, earthquakes, Tsunamis, floods and droughts, epidemics; Issues related to environmental pollution; Changes in patterns of land use; Principles of environmental impact assessment and environmental management; Population explosion and food security; Environmental degradation; Deforestation, desertification and soil erosion; Problems of agrarian and industrial unrest; Regional disparities in economic development; Concept of sustainable growth and development; Environmental awareness; Linkage of rivers; Globalisation and Indian economy.

NOTE : Candidates will be required to answer one compulsory map question pertinent to subjects covered by this paper.


Paper 1



Archaeological sources :

Exploration, excavation, epigraphy, numismatics, monuments. Literary sources:

Indigenous: Primary and secondary; poetry, scientific literature, literature, literature in regional languages, religious literature.

Foreign account: Greek, Chinese and Arab writers.

2.Pre-history and Proto-history :

Geographical factors; hunting and gathering (paleolithic and mesolithic); Beginning of agriculture (neolithic and chalcolithic).

3.Indus Valley Civilization :

Origin, date, extent, characteristics-decline, survival and significance, art and architecture.

4.Megalithic Cultures :

Distribution of pastoral and farming cultures outside the Indus, Development of community life, Settlements, Development of agriculture, Crafts, Pottery, and Ironindustry.

5.Aryans and Vedic Period :

Expansions of Aryans in India :

Vedic Period: Religious and philosophic literature; Transformation from Rig Vedic period to the later Vedic period; Political, social and economical life; Significance of the Vedic Age; Evolution of Monarchy and Varna system.

6.Period of Mahajanapadas :

Formation of States (Mahajanapada): Republics and monarchies; Rise of urban centres; Trade routes; Economic growth; Introduction of coinage; Spread of Jainism and Buddism; Rise of Magadha and Nandas.

Iranian and Mecedonian invasions and their impact.

7.Mauryan Empire :

Foundation of the Mauryan Empire, Chandragupta, Kautilya and Arthashastra; Ashoka; Concept of Dharma; Edicts; Polity, Administration, Economy; Art, architecture and sculpture; External contacts; Religion; Spread of religion; Literature.

Disintegration of the empire; sungas and Kanvas.

8.Post-Mauryan Period (Indo-Greeks, Sakas, Kushanas, Western Kshatrapas) :

Contact with outside world; growth of urban centres, economy, coinage, development of religions, Mahayana, social conditions, art, architecture, culture, literature and science.

9.Early State and Society in Eastern India, Deccan and South India:

Kharavela, The Satavahanas, Tamil States of the Sangam Age; Administration, Economy, land grants, coinage, trade guilds and urban centres; Buddhist centres; Sangam literature and culture; Art and architecture.

10.Guptas, Vakatakas and Vardhanas:

Polity and administration, Economic conditions, Coinage of the Guptas, Land grants, Decline of

urban centres, Indian feudalism, Caste system, Position of women, Education and educational institutions; Nalanda, Vikramshila and Vallabhi, Literature, scientific literature, art and architecture.

11.Regional States during Gupta Era:

The Kadambas, Pallavas, Chalukyas of Badami; Polity and Administration, Trade guilds, Literature; growth of Vaishnava and Saiva religions. Tamil Bhakit movement, Shankaracharya; Vedanta; Institutions of temple and temple architecture; Palas, Senas, Rashtrakutas, Paramaras, Polity and administration; Cultural aspects. Arab conquest of Sind; Alberuni, The Chaluky as of Kalyana, Cholas, Hoysalas, Pandyas; Polity and Administration; Local Government; Growth of art and architecture, religious sects, Institution of temple and Mathas, Agraharas, education and literature, economy and society.

12.Themes in Early Indian Cultural History:

Languages and texts, major stages in the evolution of art and architecture, major philosophical thinkers and schools, ideas in Science and Mathematics.

13.Early Medieval India, 750-1200:

—Polity: Major political developments in Northern India and the peninsula, origin and the rise of Rajputs.

—The Cholas: administration, village economy and society “Indian Feudalism”.

—Agrarian economy and urban settlements.

—Trade and commerce.

—Society: the status of the Brahman and the new social order.

—Condition of women.

—Indian science and technology.

14.Cultural Traditions in India, 750-1200:

—Philosophy: Skankaracharya and Vedanta, Ramanuja and Vishishtadvaita, Madhva and Brahma-Mimansa.

—Religion: Forms and features of religion, Tamil devotional cult, growth of Bhakti, Islam and its arrival in India, Sufism.

—Literature: Literature in Sanskrit, growth of Tamil literature, literature in the newly developing languages, Kalhan's Rajtarangini, Alberuni's India.

—Art and Architecture: Temple architecture, sculpture, painting.

15.The Thirteenth Century:

—Establishment of the Delhi Sultanate: The Ghurian invasions - factors behind Ghurian success.

—Economic, Social and cultural consequences.

—Foundation of Delhi Sultanate and early Turkish Sultans.

—Consolidation: The rule of Iltutmish and Balban.

16.The Fourteenth Century:

—“The Khalji Revolution”.

—Alauddin Khalji: Conquests and territorial expansion, agrarian and economic measure.

—Muhammad Tughluq: Major projects, agrarian measures, bureaucracy of Muhammad Tughluq.

—Firuz Tugluq: Agrarian measures, achievements in civil engineering and public works, decline of the Sultanate, foreign contacts and Ibn Battuta's account.

17.Society, Culture and Economy in the Thirteenth and Fourteenth Centuries:

—Society: composition of rural society, ruling classes, town dwellers, women, religious classes, caste and slavery under the Sultanate, Bhakti movement, Sufi movement.

—Culture: Persian literature, literature in the regional languages of North India, literaute in the languages of South India, Sultanate architecture and new structural forms, painting, evolution of a composite culture. —

Economy: Agricultural Production, rise of urban economy and non-agricultural production, trade and commerce.

18.The Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Century-Political Developments and Economy:

—Rise of Provincial Dynasties : Bengal, Kashmir (Zainul Abedin), Gujarat.

—Malwa, Bahmanids.

—The Vijayanagara Empire.


—Mughal Empire, first phase : Babur, Humayun.

—TheSur Empire : Sher Shah’s administration.

—Portuguese colonial enterprise, Bhakti and Sufi Movements.

19.The Fifteenth and Early Sixteenth Century- Society and culture:

—Regional cultures specificities.

—Literary traditions.

—Provincial architectural.

—Society, culture, literature and thearts in Vijayanagara Empire.


—Conquests and consolidation of empire.

—Establishment of jagir and mansab systems.

—Rajput policy.

—Evolution of religious and social outlook. Theory of Sulh-i-kul and religious policy.

—Court patronage of art and technology.

21.Mughal Empire in the Seventeenth Century:

—Major administrative policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb.

—The Empire and the Zamindars.

—Religious policies of Jahangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb.

—Nature of the Mughal State.

—Late Seventeenth Century crisis and the revolts.

—The Ahom kingdom.

—Shivaji and the early Maratha Kingdom.

22.Economy and society, in the 16th and 17th Centuries:

—Population Agricultural and craft production.

—Towns, commerce with Europe through Dutch, English and French companies : atrade revolution.

—Indian mercantile classes. Banking, insurance and credit systems.

—Conditions of peasants, Condition of Women.

—Evolution of the Sikh community and the Khalsa Panth.

23.Culture during Mughal Empire:

—Persian histories and other literature.

—Hindi and religious literatures.

—Mughal architecture.

—Mughal painting.

—Provincial architecture and painting.

—Classical music.

—Science and technology.

24.The Eighteenth Century:

—Factors for the decline of the Mughal Empire.

—The regional principalities: Nizam’s Deccan, Bengal, Awadh.

—Maratha ascendancy under the Peshwas.

—The Maratha fiscal and financial system.

—Emergence of Afghan power Battle ofPanipat, 1761.

—State of, political, cultural and economic, on eve of the British conquest.


1.European Penetration into India:

The Early European Settlements; The Portuguese and the Dutch; The English and the French East India Companies; Their struggle for supremacy; Carnatic Wars; Bengal-The conflict between the English and the Nawabs of Bengal; Siraj and the English; The Battle of Plassey; Significance of Plassey.

2.British Expansion in India:

Bengal-Mir Jafar and Mir Kasim; The Battle of Buxar; Mysore; The Marathas; The three Anglo-Maratha Wars; The Punjab.

3.Early Structure of the British Raj:

The Early administrative structure; From diarchy to direct contol; The Regulating Act (1773); The Pitt's India Act (1784); The Charter Act (1833); The Voice of free trade and the changing character of British colonial rule; The English utilitarian and India.

4.Economic Impact of British Colonial Rule:

(a)Land revenue settlements in British India; The Permanent Settlement; Ryotwari Settlement; Mahalwari Settlement; Economic impact of the revenue arrangements; Commercialization of agriculture; Rise of landless agrarian labourers; Impoverishment of the rural society.

(b)Dislocation of traditional trade and commerce; De-industrialisation; Decline of traditional crafts; Drain of wealth; Economic transformation of India; Railroad and communication network including telegraph and postal services; Famine and poverty in the rural interior; European business enterprise and its limitations.

5.Social and Cultural Developments:

The state of indigenous education, its dislocation; Orientalist-Anglicist controversy, The introduction of western education in India; The rise of press, literature and public opinion; The rise of modern vernacular literature; Progress of Science; Christian missionary activities in India.

6.Social and Religious Reform Movements in Bengal and Other Areas:

Ram Mohan Roy, The Brahmo Movement; Devendranath Tagore; Iswarchandra Vidyasagar; The Young Bengal Movement; Dayanada Saraswati; The social reform movements in India including Sati, widow remarriage, child marriage etc.; The contribution of Indian renaissance to the growth of modern India; Islamic revivalism-the Feraizi and Wahabi Movements.

7.Indian Response to British Rule:

Peasant movement and tribal uprisings in the 18th and 19th centuries including the Rangpur Dhing (1783), the Kol Rebellion (1832), the Mopla Rebellion in Malabar (1841-1920), the Santal Hul (1855), Indigo Rebellion (1859-60), Deccan Uprising (1875) and the Munda Ulgulan (1899-1900); The Great Revolt of 1857 —Origin, character, casuses of failure, the consequences; The shift in the character of peasant uprisings in the post-1857 period; the peasant movements of the 1920s and 1930s.

8.Factors leading to the birth of Indian Nationalism; Politics of Association; The Foundation of the Indian National Congress; The Safety-valve thesis relating to the birth of the Congress; Programme and objectives of Early Congress; the social composition of early Congress leadership; the Moderates and Extremists; The Partition of Bengal (1905); The Swadeshi Movement in Bengal; the economic and political aspects of Swadeshi Movement; The beginning of revolutionary extremism in India.

9.Rise of Gandhi; Character of Gandhian nationalism; Gandhi's popular appeal; Rowlatt Satyagraha; the Khilafat Movement; the Non-cooperation Movement; National politics from the end of the Non-cooperation movement to the beginning of the Civil Disobedience Movement; the two phases of the Civil Disobedience Movement; Simon Commission; The Nehru Report; the Round Table Conferences; Nationalism and the Peasant Movements; Nationalism and Working class movements; Women and Indian youth and students in Indian politics (1885-1947); the election of 1937 and the formation of ministries; Cripps Mission;

the Quit India Movement; the Wavell Plan; The Cabinet Mission.

10.Constitutional Developments in the Colonial India between 1858 and 1935.

11.Other strands in the National Movement.

The Revolutionaries: Bengal, the Punjab, Maharashtra, U.P. the Madras Presidency, Outside India.

The Left; The Left within the Congress: Jawaharlal Nehru, Subhas Chandra Bose, the Congress Socialist Party; the Communist Party of India, other left parties.

12.Politics of Separatism; the Muslim League; the Hindu Mahasabha; Communalism and the politics of partition; Transfer of power; Independence.

13.Consolidation as a Nation; Nehru's Foreign Policy; India and her neighbours (1947-1964); The linguistic reorganisation of States (1935-1947); Regionalism and regional inequality; Integration of Princely States; Princes in electoral politics; the Question of National Language.

14.Caste and Ethnicity after 1947; Backward Castes and Tribes in post-colonial electoral politics; Dalit movements.

15.Economic development and political change; Land reforms; the politics of planning and rural reconstruction; Ecology and environmental policy in post-colonial India; Progress of Science.

16.Enlightenment and Modern ideas:

(i)Major Ideas of Enlightenment : Kant, Rousseau.

(ii)Spread of Enlightenment in the colonies.

(iii)Rise of socialist ideas (up to Marx); spread of Marxian Socialism.

17.Origins of Modern Politics :

(i)European States System.

(ii)American Revolution and the Constitution.

(iii)French Revolution and Aftermath, 1789-1815.

(iv)American Civil War with reference to Abraham Lincoln and the abolition of slavery.

(v)British Democratic politics, 1815-1850 : Parliamentary Reformers, Free Traders, Chartists.

18.Industrialization :

(i)English Industrial Revolution : Causes and Impact on Society.

(ii)Industrialization in other countries : USA, Germany, Russia, Japan.

(iii)Industrialization and Globalization.

19.Nation-State System :

(i)Rise of Nationalism in 19th century.

(ii)Nationalism : State-building in Germany and Italy.

(iii)Disintegration of Empires in the face of the emergence of nationalities across the World.

20.Imperialism and Colonialism :

(i)South and South-East Asia.

(ii)Latin America and South Africa.


(iv)Imperialism and free trade: Rise of neo-imperialism.

21.Revolution and Counter-Revolution :

(i)19th Century European revolutions.

(ii)The Russian Revolution of 1917-1921.

(iii)Fascist Counter-Revolution, Italy and Germany.

(iv)The Chinese Revolution of 1949.

22.World Wars :

(i)1st and 2nd World Wars as Total Wars : Societal implications.

(ii)World War I : Causes and Consequences.

(iii)World War II : Causes and Consequences.

23.The World after World War II:

(i)Emergence of Two power blocs.

(ii)Emergence of Third World and non-alignment.

(iii)UNO and the global disputes.

24 . Liberation from Colonial Rule :

(i)Latin America-Bolivar.

(ii)Arab World-Egypt.

(iii)Africa-Apartheid to Democracy. (iv)South-East Asia-Vietnam.

25.Decolonization and Underdevelopment :

(i) Factors constraining Development ; Latin America, Africa.

26.Unification of Europe :

(i)Post War Foundations ; NATO and European Community.

(ii)Consolidation and Expansion of European Community

(iii)European Union.

27.Disintegration of Soviet Union and the Rise of the Unipolar World :

(i)Factors leading to the collapse of Soviet Communism and Soviet Union, 1985-1991.

(ii)Political Changes in East Europe 1989-2001.

(iii)End of the Cold War and US Ascendancy in the World as the lone superpower.


Paper 1

Foundations of Psychology


1.Introduction : Definition of Psychology; Historical antecedents of Psychology and trends in the 21st centrury; Psychology and scientific methods; Psychology in relation to other social sciences and natural sciences; Application of Psychology to societal problems.

2.Methods of Psychology : Types of research : Descriptive, evaluative, diagnostic and prognostic; Methods of Research : Survey, observation, case-study and experiments; Characteristics of experimental design and non-experimental designs; quasi-experimental designs; Focussed group discussions, brain storming, grounded theory approach.

3.Research methods : Major steps in psychological research (problem statement, hypothesis formulation, research design, sampling, tools of data collection, analysis and interpretation and report writing); Fundamental versus applied research; Methods of data collection (interview, observation, questionnaire and case study). Research Designs (Ex-post facto and experimental). Application of statistical techniques (t-test, two-way ANOVA, correlation and regression and factor analysis) item response theory.

4.Development of Human Behaviour : Growth and development; Principles of development, Role of genetic and environmental factors in determining human behaviour; Influence of cultural factors in socialization; Life span development—Characteristics, development tasks, promoting psychological well-being across major stages of the life span.

5.Sensation, Attention and Perception : Sensation: concepts of threshold, absolute and difference thresholds, signal-detection and vigilance; Factors influencing attention including set

and characteristics of stimulus; Definition and concept of perception, biological factors in perception; Perceptual organization-influence of past experiences, perceptual defence-factor influencing space and depth perception, size estimation and perceptual readiness; The plasticity of perception; Extrasensory perception; Culture and perception, Subliminal perception.

6.Learning : Concepts and theories of learning (Behaviourists, Gestaltalist and Information processing models). The processes of extinction, discrimination and generalisation. Programmed learning, probability learning, self instructional learning, concepts, types and the schedules of reinforcement, escape, avoidance and punishment, modelling and social learning.

7.Memory : Encoding and remembering; Shot-term memory, Long-term memory, Sensory memory, Iconic memory, Echoic memory: The Multistore model, levels of processing; Organization and Mnemonic techniques to improve memory; Theories of forgetting: decay, interference and retrieval failure: Metamemory; Amnesia: Anterograde and retrograde.

8.Thinking and Problem Solving : Piaget’s theory of cognitive development; Concept formation processes; Information processing, Reasoning and problem solving, Facilitating and hindering factors in problem solving, Methods of problem solving: Creative thinking and fostering creativity; Factors influencing decision making and judgement; Recent trends.

9.Motivation and Emotion : Psychological and physiological basis of motivation and emotion; Measurement of motivation and emotion; Effects of motivation and emotion on behaviour; Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation; Factors influencing intrinsic motivation; Emotional competence and the related issues.

10.Intelligence and Aptitude : Concept of intelligence and aptitude, Nature and theories of intelligence-Spearman, Thurstone, Gulford Vernon, Sternberg and J.P. Das; Emotional Intelligence, Social intelligence, measurement of intelligence and aptitudes, concept of I Q deviation I Q, constancy of I Q; Measurement of multiple intelligence; Fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence.

11.Personality : Definition and concept of personality; Theories of personality (psychoanalytical, socio-cultural, interpersonal, developmental, humanistic, behaviouristic, trait and type approaches); Measurement of personality (projective tests, pencil-paper test); The Indian approach to personality; Training for personality development; Latest approaches like big 5 factor theory; The notion of self in different traditions.

12.Attitudes, Values and Interests : Definitions of attitudes, values and interests; Components of attitudes; Formation and maintenance of attitudes. Measurement of attitudes, values and interests. Theories of attitude changes, strategies for fostering values. Formation of stereotypes and prejudices; Changing other’s behaviour, Theories of attribution; Recent trends.

13.Language and Communication : Human language—Properties, structure and linguistic hierarchy, Language acquisition—predispotion, critical period hypothesis; Theories of Language development—Skinner and Chomsky; Process and types of communication—effective commu-nication training.

14.Issues and Perspectives in Modern Contemporary Psychology : Computer application in the psychological laboratory and psychological testing; Artificial intelligence; Psychocybernetics; Study of consciousnessleep-wak schedules; dreams, stimulus deprivation, meditation, hypnotic/drug induced states; Extrasensory perception; Intersensory perception; Simulation studies.


Psychology : Issues and applications

1.Psychological Measurement of Individual Differences :

The nature of individual differences. Characteristics and construction of standardized psychological tests. Types of psychological tests. Use, misuse and limitation of psychological tests. Ethical issues in the use of psychological tests.

2.Psychological well being and Mental Disorders :

Concept of health-ill health positive health, well being casual factores in Mental disorders (Anxiety disorders, mood disorders; schizophrenia and delusional disorders; personality disorders, substance abuse disorders). Factors influencing positive health, well being; lifestyle and quality of life; Happiness disposition.

3.Therapeutic Approaches :

Psychodynamic therapies. Behaviour therapies. Client centered therapy. Cognitive therapies. Indigenous therapies (Yoga, Meditation). Biofeedback therapy. Prevention and rehabilitation of the mentally ill; Fostering mental health.

4.Work Psychology and Organisational Behaviour :

Personnel selection and training. Use of Psychological tests in the industry. Training and human resource development. Theories of work motivation. Herzberg, Maslow, Adam Equity theory, Porter and Lawler, Vroom; Leadership and participatory management; Advertising and marketing; Stress and its management; Ergonomics; consumer psychology; Managerial effectiveness; Transformational leadersip; Senitivity training; Power and politics in organizations.

5.Application of Psychology to Educational Field :

Psychological principles underlying effective teaching-learning process. Learning styles. Gifted, retarded, learning disabled and their training. Training for improving memory and better academic achievement. Personality development and value education. Educational, vocational guidance and Career counselling. Use of Psychological tests in educational institutions; Effective strategies in guidance programmes.

6.Community Psychology :

Definition and concept of Community Psychology. Use of small groups in social action. Arousing Community consciousness and action for handling social problems. Group decision making and leadership for social change. Effective strategies for social change.

7.Rehabilitation Psychology :

Primary, secondary and tertiary prevention programmes—role of psychologists. Organising of services for rehabilitation of physically, mentally and socially challenged persons including old persons. Rehabilitation of persons suffering from substance abuse, juvenile delinquency, criminal behaviours. Rehabilitation of victims of violence. Rehabilitation of HIV/AIDS victims, the role of social agencies.

8.Application of Psychology to disadvantaged groups :

The concepts of disadvantaged, deprivation social, physical, cultural and economic consequences of disadvantaged and deprived groups. Educating and motivating the disadvantaged towards development; Relative and prolonged deprivation.

9.Psychological problem of social integration :

The concept of social integration. The problem of caste, class, religion and language conflicts and prejudice. Nature and manifestation of prejudice between the ingroup and outgroup. Casual factors of such conflicts and prejudices. Psychological strategies for handling the conflicts and prejudices. Measures to achieve social integration.

10.Application of Psychology in Information Technology and Mass Media :

The present scenario of information technology and the mass media boom and the role of psychologists. Selection and training of Psychology professionals to work in the field of IT and mass media. Distance learning through IT and mass media. Entrepreneurship through e-commerce. Multilevel marketing. Impact of TV and fostering value through IT and mass media. Psychological consequences of recent developments in Information Technology.

11.Psychology and Economic development :

Achievement motivation and economic development. Characteristics of entrepreneurial behaviour. Motivating and Training people for entrepreneurship and economic development; Consumer rights and consumer awareness, Government policies for promotion of entrepreneurship among youth including women entreprenures.

12.Application of Psychology to environment and related fields :

Environmental Psychology effects of noise, pollution and crowding. Population Psychology : Psychological consequence of population explosion and high population density. Motivating for small family norms. Impact of rapid scientific and technological growth on degradation of environment.

13.Application of psychology in other fields :

(a)Military Psychology

Devising psycological tests for defence personnel for use in selection, Training, counseling; training psychologists to work , with defence personnel in promoting positive health; Human engineering in defence.

(b)Sports Psychology

Psychological interventions in improving performance of athletes and sports. Persons participating in Individual and Team Games.

(c)Media influences on pro and anti-social behaviour.

(d)Psychology of Terrorism.

14.Psychology of Gender :

Issues of discrimination, Management of diversity; Glass ceiling effect, Self-fulfilling prophesy, Women and Indian society.



Political Theory and Indian Politics :

1.Political Theory: meaning and approaches.

2.Theories of state :Liberal, Neo-liberal, Marxist, Pluiralist, post-colonial and Feminist.

3.Justice : Conceptions of justice with special reference to Rawl’s theory of justice and its communitarian critiques.

4.Equality : Social, political and economic; relationship between equality and freedom; Affirmative action.

5.Rights : Meaning and theories; different kinds of rights; Concept of Human Rights.

6.Democracy:Classicalandcontemporarytheories;differentmodelsof democracy—representative, participatory and deliberative.

7.Concept of power : hegemony, ideology and legitimacy.

8.Political Ideologies : Liberalism, Socialism, Marxism, Fascism, Gandhism and Feminism.

9.Indian Political Thought: Dharamshastra, Arthashastra and Buddhist Traditions; Sir Syed Ahmed Khan, Sri Aurobindo, M. K. Gandhi, B. R. Ambedkar, M. N. Roy.

10.Western Political Thought : Plato, Aristotle, Machiavelli, Hobbes, Locke, John S. Mill, Marx, Gramsci, Hannah Arendt.

Indian Governmentand Politics

1.Indian Nationalism :

(a)Political Strategies of India’s Freedom Struggle : Constitutionalism to mass Satyagraha, Non-cooperation, Civil Disobedience; Militant and Revolutionary Movements, Peasant and Workers Movements.

(b)Perspectives on Indian National Movement; Liberal, Socialist and Marxist; Radical Humanist and Dalit.

2.Making of the Indian Constitution : Legacies of the British rule; different social and political perspectives.

3.Salient Features of the Indian Constitution : The Preamble, Fundamental Rights and Duties, Directive Principles; Parliamentary System and Amendment Procedures; Judicial Review and Basic Structure doctrine.

4.(a) Principal Organs of the Union Government : Envisaged role and actual working of the Executive, Legislature and Supreme Court.

(b) Principal Organs of the State Government : Envisaged role and actual working of the Executive, Legislature and High Courts.

5.Grassroots Democracy : Panchayati Raj and Municipal Government; Significance of 73rd and 74th Amendments; Grassroot movements.

6.Statutory Institutions/Commissions : Election Commission, Comptroller and Auditor General, Finance Commission, Union Public Service Commission, National Commission for Scheduled Castes, National Commission for Scheduled Tribes, National Commission for Women; National Human Rights Commission, National Commission for Minorities, National Backward Classes Commission.

7.Federalism : Constitutional provisions; changing nature of centre-state relations; integrationist tendencies and regional aspirations; inter-state disputes.

8.Planning and Economic development : Nehruvian and Gandhian perspectives; Role of

planning and public sector; Green Revolution, land reforms and agrarian relations; liberalization and economic reforms.

9.Caste, Religion and Ethnicity in Indian Politics.

10.Party System : National and regional political parties, ideological and social bases of parties; Patterns of coalition politics; Pressure groups, trends in electoral behaviour; changing socio-economic profile of Legislators.

11.Social Movement : Civil liberties and human rights movements; women’s movements; environmentalist movements.


ComparativePoliticsandInternational Relations Comparative Political Analysis and International Politics :

1.Comparative Politics : Nature and major approaches; Political economy and political sociology perspectives; Limitations of the comparative method.

2.State in Comparative Perspective : Characteristics and changing nature of the State in capitalist and socialist economies, and advanced industrial and developing societies.

3.Politics of Representation and Participation : Political parties, pressure groups and social movements in advanced industrial and developing societies.

4.Globalisation : Responses from developed and developing societies.

5.Approaches to the Study of International Relations : Idealist, Realist, Marxist, Functionalist and Systems theory.

6.Key Concepts in International Relations : National interest, security and power; Balance of power and deterrence; Transational actors and collective security; World capitalist economy and globalisation.

7.Changing International Political Order :

(a)Rise of super powers; Strategic and ideological Bipolarity, arms race and cold war; Nuclear threat;

(b)Non-aligned Movement : Aims and achievements.

(c)Collapse of the Soviet Union; Unipolarity and American hegemony; Relevance of non-alignment in the contemporary world.

8.Evolution of the International Economic System : From Brettonwoods to WTO; Socialist economies and the CMEA (Council for Mutual Economic Assistance); Third World demand for new international economic order; Globalisation of the world economy.

9.United Nations : Envisaged role and actual record; Specialized UN agencies—aims and functioning; need for UN reforms.

10.Regionalisation of World Politics : EU, ASEAN, APEC, AARC, NAFTA.

11.Contemporary Global Concerns : Democracy, human rights, environment, gender justice terrorism, nuclear proliferation.


1.Indian Foreign Policy : Determinants of foreign policy; the institutions of policy-making;

Continuity and change.

2.India’s Contribution to the Non-Alignment Movement Different phases; Current role.

3.India and South Asia :

(a)Regional Co-operation : SAARC-past performance and future prospects.

(b)South Asia as a Free Trade Area.

(c)India’s “Look East” policy.

(d)Impediments to regional co-operation : River water disputes; illegal cross border migration; Ethnic conflicts and insurgencies; Border disputes.

4.India and the Global South : Relations with Africa and Latin America; Leadership role in the demand for NIEO and WTO negotiations.

5.India and the Global Centres of Power : USA,EU,Japan, China and Russia.

6.India and the UN System: Role in UN Peace-keeping; Demand for Permanent Seat in the Security Council.

7.India and the Nuclear Question : Changing perceptions and policy.

8.Recent developments in Indian Foreign Policy : India’s position on the recent crises in Afghanistan, Iraq and West Asia, growing relations with US and Isreal; Vision of a new world order.

Interview Round

The board will test the candidates on various areas like their career and general interest. The assessment will be based on the intellectual qualities along with their social traits and his interests in current affairs.
The board will also assess the candidate's mental caliber. The qualities that will be judged are mental alertness, clear and logical exposition, balance of judgment, variety, and depth of interest, ability for social cohesion and leadership, intellectual and moral integrity.
This round will determine if a candidate is fit for a career in Civil Services.

Frequently Asked Questions about UPSC Syllabus

Q1. Can a candidate choose an optional subject which they have not studied at the graduate or postgraduate level?

Ans 1. Yes, Candidates can select any language from the list of optional subjects that a candidate can opt for. in Paper VI and VII.

Q2. Which is the language medium of question papers?

Ans 2. The question papers are set in Hindi and English only except for the literature language papers.

Q3. Does UPSC syllabus change?

Ans 3. Yes, refer to the UPSC notification for the particular exam year to see the latest syllabus.Visit: UPSC revised syllabus scheme

The interactive teaching pattern and the direct personal dialogue with the faculty and the director helps greatly in the preparation, inspite of the eternal syllabus the students develop a sense of confidence courtesy faculty.

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